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In economics, a service is a transaction in which no physical goods are transferred from the seller to the buyer. The benefits of such a service are held to be ...

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How, then, did it come about that so many have attributed the phrase stylized facts to kaldor? I suspect that he probably did use the term in his early draft and in his presentations of his work to colleagues, who may then never have felt the need to read the published version. Also, a great many of those who have used the concept of the terms of trade have not needed to define it quantitatively, since they could speak simply of the terms of trade improving or deteriorating. It is not hard to get that condition from it, however simply set the trade balance to zero ( perhaps robinson knew this and didnt think it worth mentioning, since the two conditions needed for its validity are quite restrictive, especially the assumption of zero trade balance which removes any need to reduce it by devaluation.

What is crucial and distinctive about either form is that the number of products (often called varieties) consumed, notes that later users of dixit-stiglitz utility combined three assumptions that dixit and stiglitz themselves mentioned but never used in combination symmetry of , or replaced it with other goods. It is unclear whether his contribution was known to bowley and to others writing in english until later. A rise in a countrys barter terms of trade, due to a rise in its prices relative to the price of imports, could be harmful if it mainly caused a fall in the quantity it was able to sell.

This then, in words, was precisely the statement that has come down to us as the marshall-lerner condition. By 1969, in , bhagwati too was using the second-best terminology, but again his and his co-authors main point was that tariffs are not even second best but only at most third best when other policies can be adjusted. Neither of these papers use the term great moderation, or even the word moderation.

Then, under very special assumptions and on the analysis of special cases, p. The salient feature of the third world was that it wanted economic and political clout. This notion is intelligible, when we consider that the authors and leaders of opinion on mercantile questions have always hitherto been the selling class.

She called this competition rent seeking, a term that she apparently coined and that has caught on hugely. Meade formalized his calculation and called it an index of the change in world welfare, which he derived as the term goes back more than two centuries. My google-scholar search has failed to find the term before this, but samuelsons failure to explain it further in this source suggests that he, at least, had been using the term for some time.

And it seems likely that they, too, were the ones who led us to call it the edgeworth or edgeworth-bowley box ever since. Here i record what i have been able to learn about the origins of some of the terms we use in international economics, both who introduced their meanings and who first gave them their names, if those are not the same people. For each he chose to define it as , with the result that when his curves declined, that was beneficial for the country. But the same two authors, writing later, reverted to as a policy to respond to a foreign subsidy. In any case, in her second edition of the same work, there is one other source that might have been expected to reach the result before lerner (1944) , who dealt in great detail with the theory of foreign exchanges.


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Many schools just don’t teach cursive handwriting any more. ===== Yesterday, we posted about how Johnny can’t write. That was in a macro sense: he can’t ...
Write My Economics Paper N More Since these do not align in equilibrium with a single unit isocost line, they cannot be used in the same way, It may have been this tendency to misinterpret that led the united states to replace it with in 1998. Stephen salant, at that time at the federal reserves international finance section, focusing on schemes to stabilize commodity prices, Several subsequent authors also used the term. As for the hirschman index itself and its use for quantifying concentration of trade, it is difficult to search for it without the herfindahl, but i was able to find a few sources that use it, There is a discussion of reasons for using tariffs (mostly called duties), but none seems to capture the infant industry reasoning. The benefits of such a service are held to be. That paper was reproduced, as it was originally written according to the journal editor, as were the first to make extensive use of the diagram, attributing it as a diagram introduced by mr. An extended market for its produce--an abundant consumption for its goods--a vent for its surplus--are the phrases by which it has been customary to designate the uses and recommendations of commerce with foreign countries. Not being able to dispose of its surplus at home, it dumps it somewhere else.
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    The onus of proof rests with those who advocate their employment, and they are bound to show (1) that the industry to be favoured will after a time be self-supporting, and (2) that the ultimate advantage will exceed the losses incurred during the process. Some used it not to represent international trade, but rather for the supplies and demands of individual consumers. Mill apparently had some second thoughts about this case, as he changed will in the last sentence to might in his 7th edition. Lerner in his brilliant paper on factor price equalization in international trade. It is worth noting also, as krugman did in his final sentence, that these results were anticipated by linder did stress the importance of the demand in the home market in order for a countrys industry to succeed and export (p.

    But its first use by more or less that name was in the , which was actually a group of several treaties ending the war of the spanish succession 1713-1715. Perhaps because the exchange rates among separate national currencies are seldom if ever truly fixed, the term has come to mean a group of countries that share a common currency. He does not say where it was pointed out, but it seems likely that he was referring to pulliainen (1963). As for the hirschman index itself and its use for quantifying concentration of trade, it is difficult to search for it without the herfindahl, but i was able to find a few sources that use it. A google-scholar search over 1970-2016 finds more than twice as many of the first (17,600) as of the second and third combined (7,580).

    His use seemed to assume that readers were already familiar with both the diagram and the name for it, although his use of the quotation marks around it suggests that he didnt see the name as already universally adopted. These are (1) a strong currency (2) high industrial costs and (3) use of government gas revenues to increase spending rather than investment. The term is often attributed to milton friedman, who apparently commented on the market for the mexican peso in the early 1970s and explained mexicos high (relative to the us) interest rate by the concern that the peso would be devalued, which it later was. The ces function did not play a major role in international trade theory during the first decade or two after its introduction, perhaps because trade theorists had a proud tradition of deriving results without specifying functional forms. They used the word moderation, not capitalized and without the adjective great, throughout the paper, but the title of their section 3, p. That is probably why his name came to be associated with edgeworths. His purpose was to show that the condition is actually incorrect for determining the effect of a devaluation on a non-zero trade balance (as was implicit in robinson (1937)), and he concludes (a) the marshall-lerner condition for devaluation to have a favorable effect on the trade balance (sum of the two elasticities larger than unity) holds only when imports are equal to exports. It was first published in an appendix attached to book iii, chapter viii, of much of it had been designed to form part of an appendix to a volume on international trade, on which a good deal of work was done, chiefly between 18appendix is reproduced with but little change in substance from that part of the mss. Where, after we have arrived, we immediately lose the advantage. This article was published in three parts, in the second of which, he showed the curves in various configurations and used the verb offer to explain what they represented.

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    He then explained his preference for the new term on the grounds that rates of exchange could be understood to connote monetary exchange rates, while he meant the rate at which goods are traded for other goods. The mechanism has often been called just the specie flow mechanism, though that de-emphasizes the role of prices, the role of which was not always recognized by other authors. They used the word moderation, not capitalized and without the adjective great, throughout the paper, but the title of their section 3, p. Between whatever places foreign trade is carried on, they all of them derive two distinct benefits from it. A source that i found online but have been unable to learn the author of (seems to be a chapter from a dissertation in india) says that the concept of mfn has been used since the middle ages Buy now Write My Economics Paper N More

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    The first to use it in its modern sense was alfred sauvy, a french demographer who drew a parallel with the third estate (the people) during the french revolution. This term, as applied to the moderating of economic fluctuations from the 1980s to 2007, seems first to have been used by. The ces function did not play a major role in international trade theory during the first decade or two after its introduction, perhaps because trade theorists had a proud tradition of deriving results without specifying functional forms. However, the opposite choice has often been made by economists studying international monetary, macroeconomic, and financial issues. It may have been this tendency to misinterpret that led the united states to replace it with in 1998, during the lead-up to granting china permanent mfn treatment in 2000 Write My Economics Paper N More Buy now

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    If i attribute a concept or the term for it to a particular author, that means i have personally checked the source and seen it used there in the way that i describe. England, when writers were concerned that by importing a greater value than it was exporting, england was losing money -- i. If you know of prior uses that should be mentioned, please let me know, preferably by e-mail to , where it says. Dumping takes place when the country which adopts it has a production which is larger than its own demand. The term itself can be misleading, since when applied to a country it may be interpreted as favoring that country over others.

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    Hence, this is a simple way of taking account of the in his appendix ii (pp. A country which has this skill and experience yet to acquire, may in other respects be better adapted to the production than those which were earlier in the field. There is a discussion of reasons for using tariffs (mostly called duties), but none seems to capture the infant industry reasoning. Hirschman (1964) also pointed out that his index differed from what had come to be called the only by hirschmans inclusion of the square root. Hamilton spoke only once of an infant manufacture and list only once of infant manufactures.

    This latter interpretation, separated from the concern with employment, captures what is probably the most familiar statement of what the condition is about the condition for a devaluation to improve the balance of trade Buy Online Write My Economics Paper N More

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    This is motivated in the usual way from change in consumer surplus and tariff revenue. It seems likely that the few (i only found two) occurrences of terms of trade in that appendix were added when it was presumably revised for its 1923 publication. So it appears that the phenomenon represented by the great moderation was noted gradually over time and then documented by a number of scholars. And even here, the argument is subject to the caveat that the benefits from the government activity must outweigh the welfare losses due to the tariff. An extended market for its produce--an abundant consumption for its goods--a vent for its surplus--are the phrases by which it has been customary to designate the uses and recommendations of commerce with foreign countries Buy Write My Economics Paper N More Online at a discount

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    I find no further occurrences of the phrase infant industry until the period 1880-1885. The mechanism has often been called just the specie flow mechanism, though that de-emphasizes the role of prices, the role of which was not always recognized by other authors. This notion is intelligible, when we consider that the authors and leaders of opinion on mercantile questions have always hitherto been the selling class. Edgeworths purpose was to define and depict the , who drew indifference curves for two individuals, one rotated clockwise 90 degrees and the other counterclockwise, thus forming the outline of a box, within which he showed edgeworths contract curve. Lerner in his brilliant paper on factor price equalization in international trade Write My Economics Paper N More For Sale

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    This article was published in three parts, in the second of which, he showed the curves in various configurations and used the verb offer to explain what they represented. He made his point by imagining first cutting the stock of money substantially and arguing how this will change wages and prices so as to induce flows to restore balance, which he followed with a similar story for an initial increase in the stock of money (p. Of course if tariffs on all other products were universally zero, then the contributions to his calculation for them would also be zero. But from the way marshall introduced the term, it appears that he at least thought it was new. German, as providing the first explicit case for infant industry protection, and this seems right For Sale Write My Economics Paper N More

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    Stolper and samuelson, if they needed further recognition, should share credit for the application to production that has played such a large role in international trade theory. Whereas my search for the term prior to 1950 found nothing, and in 1951-1960 found only the several articles by samuelson, in 1961-1970 it appeared 26 times, almost all by authors other than samuelson and with his meaning. The superiority of one country over another in a branch of production often arises only from having begun it sooner. I find no further occurrences of the phrase infant industry until the period 1880-1885. The phrase terms of trade was first used with more or less its modern meaning by would be severally willing to trade at various terms of trade or, to use a phrase which is more appropriate in some connections, at various rates of exchange Sale Write My Economics Paper N More

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